Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Pitru Paksha Shraddha ("sixteen shraddhas")


Pitru Paksha (Sanskritपितृ पक्ष), also spelt as Pitr paksha or Pitri paksha, (literally "fortnight of the ancestors") is a 16–lunar day period when Hindus pay homage to their ancestors (Pitrs), especially through food offerings. The period is also known as Pitru PakshyaPitri PokkhoSola Shraddha ("sixteen shraddhas"), KanagatJitiyaMahalaya Paksha and Apara paksha

Pitru Paksha is considered by Hindus to be inauspicious, given the death rite performed during the ceremony, known asShraddha or tarpan. In southern and western India, it falls in the Hindu lunar month of Bhadrapada (September–October), beginning with the full moon day (Purnima) that occurs immediately after the Ganesh festival and ending with the new moon day known as Sarvapitri amavasyaMahalaya amavasya or simply Mahalaya. The autumnal equinox falls within this period, i.e. the Sun transitions from the northern to the southern hemisphere during this period. In North India and Nepal, this period corresponds to the dark fortnight of the month Ashvin, instead of Bhadrapada

The shraddha is performed on the specific lunar day during the Pitru Paksha, when the ancestor—usually a parent or paternal grandparent—died. There are exceptions to the lunar day rule; special days are allotted for people who died in a particular manner or had a certain status in life. Chautha Bharani and Bharani Panchami, the fourth and fifth lunar day respectively, are allocated for people deceased in the past year. Avidhava navami ("Unwidowed ninth"), the ninth lunar day, is for married women who died before their husband. Widowers invite Brahmin women as guests for their wife's shraddha. The twelfth lunar day is for children and ascetics who had renounced the worldly pleasures. The fourteenth day is known as Ghata chaturdashi or Ghayala chaturdashi, and is reserved for those people killed by arms, in war or suffered a violent death
2014 Shraddha Days

08           September         (Monday)            Purnima Shraddha
09           September         (Tuesday)            Pratipada Shraddha , Dwitiya Shraddha
10           September         (Wednesday)    Tritiya Shraddha
11           September         (Thursday)          Chaturthi Shraddha
12           September         (Friday)                 Maha Bharani , Panchami Shraddha
13           September         (Saturday)           Shashthi Shraddha
14           September         (Sunday)              Saptami Shraddha
15           September         (Monday)            Ashtami Shraddha
16           September         (Tuesday)            Navami Shraddha
17           September         (Wednesday)    Dashami Shraddha
18           September         (Thursday)          Ekadashi Shraddha
19           September         (Friday)                 Dwadashi Shraddha
21           September         (Sunday)              Magha Shraddha , Trayodashi Shraddha
22           September         (Monday)            Chaturdashi Shraddha
23           September         (Tuesday)            Sarva Pitru Amavasya

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The male who performs the shraddha should take a purifying bath beforehand and is expected to wear a dhoti. He wears a ring of kush grass. Then the ancestors are invoked to reside in the ring. The shraddha is usually performed bare-chested, as the position of the sacred thread worn by him needs to be changed multiple times during the ceremony. The shraddha involves pinda-daan, which is an offering to the ancestors of pindas (cooked rice and barley flour balls mixed with ghee and black sesame seeds), accompanying the release of water from the hand. It is followed by the worship of Vishnu in form of the darbha grass, a gold image or Shaligram stone and Yama. The food offering is then made, cooked especially for the ceremony on the roof. The offering is considered to be accepted if a crow arrives and devours the food; the bird is believed to be a messenger from Yama or the spirit of the ancestors. A cow and a dog are also fed, and Brahmin priests are also offered food. Once the ancestors (crow) and Brahmins have eaten, the family members can begin lunch.